Water Data
Surface Water

The surface-water resources of a nation are the water in the rivers, streams, creeks, lakes, wetlands and reservoirs which is vitally important to our everyday life. It is an important source of drinking water and is used for the irrigation, industrial and as well as other public uses. The availability of surface water varies depending upon the precipitation, storage capacity (lakes, wetlands and artificial reservoirs), permeability of the soil, runoff characteristics of the land, timing of precipitation and the local evaporation rates etc.

Information of surface water and availability in a single platform is a prerequisite for resources planning. India-WRIS web portal collects data regarding surface water from varied sources, stores and manages the data and also make it available to download in a report format for easy access to users. This information is also used for derived information in Water Audit module

The modules containing surface water data are:

  • Reservoir level: The information of the amount of water (Average Current Storage in BCM) stored in reservoirs across the country, based on data from different sources. 
  • Reservoir Sediment Study: This module provides information of capacity loss of reservoirs due to silt deposition. It offers the result of sediment study done using remote sensing technique and hydrographic survey of some selected reservoirs spread across the country. Data of the catchment area of the reservoir, design rate of sedimentation, initial capacity & reservoir levels in different years etc. of those selected reservoirs are provided in this module.
  • Surface Water Bodies: It offers the visualization of mapped water bodies with associated information categorized under different area classes at administrative (National/State/District) and hydrological unit-wise (Basin/ Sub-basin).
  • Rivers points (hydro-observation stations) data: Information of the hydro-observations sites live daily water level and river flow time series data is available in this module.
  • River Information: The module shows river systems of the country with its associated attributes such as river name, length, origin, order, etc.
  • Snow Glacial Lakes: It contains information of glacial lakes and water bodies of Himalayan regions for the years 2011 to 2021 covering the major river basins namely, Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra. The glacial lakes/water bodies have been mapped based on the visual interpretation of AWiFS satellite images. The water-spread areas of glacial lakes and water-bodies (>50 hectares) from 2011 to 2021 (June to October) and the change in the WSA (base year 2009) is presented as per the joint study of CWC & NRSC.
  • Wetlands: It provides the spatial extent & comparison of wetland and its sub categories for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon for two cycles of assessment (1994 and 2005).
  • Surface water quality: The data of 85 parameters measured for water quality is available on a monthly basis from Aug-1963 to till date.
Ground water

Groundwater, water that occurs below the surface of Earth, where it occupies all or part of the void spaces in soils or geologic strata. It is also called subsurface water to distinguish it from surface water.

Groundwater is a secure source of supply and has always been used by most of the economic activities, particularly for urban supply and industrial use. As farmers invest in individual water supply, groundwater becomes a preferred resource option.

Understanding and managing groundwater resources requires the integration of large amounts of high-quality data from different sources. India-WRIS platform serves the purpose of data collection, storage and dissemination of ground water resources through an integrated approach. This data on ground water is also used for derived information in Water Audit module.

  • Ground Water Level: Station wise data populated by central and state ground water departments (CGWB, State-GW and other central agencies) through manual data entry/ telemetric sensors/ Mobile app is available. The data is sub-categorized into State-District-Station wise level report, Seasonal –Yearly – Monthly - Daily Fluctuation, and trends of water level. The live data is updated via telemetry stations. Data is accessed and made available in an integrated approach with WIMS.
  • Ground Water Quality: Data on quality of ground water assessed with 85 parameters and is available on monthly and yearly basis for a period of May-2000 to till date.
  • Ground Water Resource Estimation: Data shows the estimates of dynamic ground water resources in terms of annual replenishable ground water resources (recharge), annual ground water draft (utilization) and the percentage of utilization with respect to recharge (stage of development). The assessment units (blocks/watersheds/mandals/firkas) are categorized as Over Exploited, Critical, semi critical, Safe based on Stage of Ground Water Development (Utilization) and the long-term water level trend (generally for the period of 10 years). The GWRE data available for the period 2011, 2013, 2017 and 2020 assessed as per GEC-97 norms.
  • Groundwater Prospects: This module provides the maps generated on 1:50000 scale, showing information regarding potential areas in terms of ground water availability (both quantity and quality).
  • Artificial Recharge Structure - Viewer: ARS Module shows the information access of large database pertaining to artificial recharge structures of the country in a structured manner. This platform is designed to populate data related to country’s artificial recharge structures, has been upgraded to allow the approved CGWB users to enter data directly into the module using the login credentials developed and disseminate to public through WRIS web portal.
  • Aquifer system (2013): Aquifer carries movable water and is the immediate sources of ground water. Information of country’s hydrogeological based classification into 14 Principal aquifers and 42 Major aquifers is available.

  • Exploration details/Litholog: The litholog data of 8177 bore locations with 21 parameters is available.

Thematic Layer

Thematic maps represents spatial variation of geographic distributions such as identifiable earth surface features it provides an informational description over a given area, rather than a data description. Thematic map layers available for visualization in the India-WRIS website maintaining by NWIC ( ) are Land use/Land cover, Soil, Land Degradation, Wasteland and Wetlands

Hydro-meteorological data

The modules containing hydrological and meteorological data are:

  • Rainfall: Rainfall live time-series data is available from varied sources in a common dashboard ranging 1901 to till date.
  • Evapo-transpiration: The live daily data on Evapo-transpiration is available on a grid basis (gridded 0.05x0.05) till district level for a given time period. The data is an output of grid-wise, water balance components using VIC hydrological model by NRSC. The data is available from 2018 to till date.
  • Soil Moisture: The soil moisture application shows the volume of soil moisture content in percentage (%) till 15 centimeters depth. The data is an output of the VIC model by NRSC. The data is available from 2018 to till date. Grid size is 0.05 x 0.05-degree.
  • Agro-Climatic/ecological zones: Major climatic zones (Planning commission) and Agro-ecological zones and sub-zones (ICAR, 2001) is available with specific attributes for each zone/sub-zone.
Land Resources

Land resources available in the form of thematic layers provides a theme-wise information over a given area and the modules containing land resources information are:

  • Land use/Land cover: The spatial layer shows the areas under 18 sub-classes of LULC. Data is available for 2005-06 to 2017-18 for pan India.
  • Soil: Spatial variation of soil resources in terms of texture, depth, slope, erosion and productivity is available in the form of raster layer.
  • Land Degradation: The data is contains country level information of the areas under various forms of land degradation processes, it’s type and severity mapped for the year 2015-16.
  • Waterlogging/Soil Salinity: It contains the statistical area of water logging and soil salinity under major and medium commands in different State’s of India. It provides results of the project named ‘Assessment of Waterlogging and Salt and/or Alkaline affected Soils in the Commands of all Major and Medium Irrigation Projects in the Country using Satellite Remote Sensing (LISS-III data) & soil analytical results collected exclusively under this project published at 2003-05.
  • Wasteland: The data contains the spatial layers of distribution of wasteland for the entire country under 12 sub-classes is available for 2 cycles (2008-09 & 2015-16).
  • Forest/ Tree Cover: The data contains information of the distribution of the nation's forest and tree cover different agencies (Tree cover data of Forest Survey of India (FSI) for the period 2018-19 &  forest type data of National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC) for the period 2005-06 to 2017- 18.
Allied Themes

The modules containing information on allied themes are:

  • Inland Navigation Waterways: Provides information of 6 navigation waterways of India namely, (a)the Ganga (NW-1), (b)the Brahmaputra (NW-2), (c)the West Coast Canal and Champakara and Udyogmandal Canals (NW-3), (d)Kakinada-Puducherry Canals system along with Godavari and Krishna rivers (NW-4), and (e)East Coast Canal with Brahmani River and Mahanadi delta (NW-5) and (f) Barak river from Bhanga to Lakhipur (NW-16). 
  • Socio-economic:Through this module, administrative hierarchy-wise demographic and amenities information of Census of India, 2011 are disseminated.
  • Flood Inundation: It contains the flood inundation maps for three years viz., 2008, 2009 and 2010 generated under "Disaster Management Programme" of National Remote Sensing Centre for few states.
  • Drought Affected Areas (2002): This provides the information on two main themes i.e. Areas under Drought Prone development and Desertification Development & Tribal Sub-Plan Area in the Country.
  • Reported Extreme Temperature, rainfall and earthquake events: Provides information of destructing events caused due to water in its various forms excessive rainfall, temperature and seismic activity in temporal and spatial domain.
  • Storm Surge Study (2011): It provides interactive map facilities to the visualization of oceanographic and meteorological data for different scenario – present and average and extreme climate change scenario (7% and 11%) and for various probability of occurrence – 10, 50 and 100 years.

The modules containing information are:

  • Water Resources Project: It provides information on irrigation, hydro-power and multi-purpose projects in India. It is a spatial inventory of the water resources structures i.e dams, barrages, weirs, anicuts, reservoirs, canals, lifts, command areas, hydropower plants, structure line etc associated with the major & medium projects of the country.
  • Inter-Basin Transfer Link:Inter-Basin Transfer Link module offers information of the 16 peninsular & 14 Himalayan components of the Inter Basin Transfer Links as per the study conducted by NWDA.
  • Minor Irrigation: It comprises state level summary data of Fourth MI (2006-07) and Fifth MI (2013-14) census, which contains six layers of information at district level namely, absolute number of minor irrigation schemes, ground water and surface water schemes, number of five types of schemes, potential created, potential utilized and ultimate irrigation potential. The schemes have been categorized broadly into six major types: (1) Dug well (2) Shallow Tube well (3) Medium Tube well (4) Deep Tube well (5) Surface Flow Schemes and (6) Surface Lift Schemes.
Jal Itihaas

The Ministry of Jal Shakti had identified 75 Water Heritage Structures in India which are showcased on the 'Jal-Itihas' module. This module offers detailed information, photos, and videos of these historic water structures. The National Water Mission has shared this data to emphasize the significance of these structures, which have endured for more than a century in different States and UTs. The WRIS platform classifies these structures into seven main types, such as dams, wells, stepwells, tanks, artificial lakes, water systems, and others.

Jal Dharohar

The 'Jal Dharohar (β version)' module developed in October 2023 aims to develop a comprehensive national database of the 1st Water Body Census received from Minor Irrigation Statistics Wings of MoJS. The module provides information on 24,24,540 water bodies in the country. The database includes attributes like location details, ownership, use, nature, and capacity of the water bodies. Users can access information on water bodies through administrative hierarchy and also through search queries. The module provide a pie chart which gives information related to water body types and range of water spread area (ha). The module allows users to download summaries of different types of water body counts (upto village) and individual water body reports.

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