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Water Data
Surface Water

The surface-water resources of a nation are the water in the rivers, streams, creeks, lakes, wetlands and reservoirs which is vitally important to our everyday life. It is an important source of drinking water and is used for the irrigation, industrial and as well as other public uses. The availability of surface water varies depending upon the precipitation, storage capacity (lakes, wetlands and artificial reservoirs), permeability of the soil, runoff characteristics of the land, timing of precipitation and the local evaporation rates etc.

Information of surface water and availability in a single platform is a prerequisite for resources planning. India-WRIS web portal collects data regarding surface water from varied sources, stores and manages the data and also make it available to download in a report format for easy access to users. This information is also used for derived information in Water Audit module.

The modules containing surface water data are:

  • Reservoir level: The information of live daily data on reservoir level and storage capacity of monitoring reservoirs is available.
  • Minor irrigation tanks: The information of live daily data on the total capacity and total storage of minor irrigation tanks is available. The data is APWRIMS and currently only available for AP state.
  • Reservoir Sediment Study: It offers the result of sediment study done using remote sensing method and hydrographic survey in different reservoirs spread across India.
  • Surface Water Bodies: It offers the visualization of mapped water bodies across nation and State-District and Basin-Subbasin wise number of waterbodies under different area classes.
  • Rivers points (hydro-observation stations) data: The live daily data of river water level and river flow time series data is available.
  • Snow Glacial Lakes: It contains information of glacial lakes and water bodies of Himalayan regions for the years 2011 to 2019 covering the major river basins namely, Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra. The glacial lakes/water bodies have been mapped based on the visual interpretation of AWiFS satellite images.
  • Wetlands: It provides the spatial extent of wetland and its sub categories for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon comparisons of two years i.e. 1994 and 2005.
  • Surface water quality: The data on 66 parameter measured for water quality is available on a monthly level from aug-1963 to march,2020.
Ground water

Groundwater, water that occurs below the surface of Earth, where it occupies all or part of the void spaces in soils or geologic strata. It is also called subsurface water to distinguish it from surface water.

Groundwater is a secure source of supply and has always been used by most of the economic activities, particularly for urban supply and industrial use. As farmers invest in individual water supply, groundwater becomes a preferred resource option.

Understanding and managing groundwater resources requires the integration of large amounts of high-quality data from different sources. India-WRIS platform serves the purpose of data collection, storage and dissemination of ground water resources through an integrated approach. This data on ground water is also used for derived information in Water Audit module.

  • Ground water level: Station wise data populated by central and state ground water departments (CGWB, State-GW and other central agencies) through manual data entry/ telemetric sensors/ Mobile app is available. The data is sub-categorized into State-District-Station wise level report, Seasonal – Annual – Decadal Fluctuation, and trends of water level. The live data is updated via telemetry stations. Data is accessed and made available in an integrated approach with WIMS.
  • Ground water quality: Data on quality of ground water assessed with 17 parameters and is available on yearly basis for a period of 2000-2016.
  • Groundwater Resources: Data shows the estimates of dynamic ground water resources in terms of annual replenishable ground water resources (recharge), annual ground water draft (utilization) and the percentage of utilization with respect to recharge (stage of development). The assessment units (blocks/watersheds/mandals/firkas) are categorized as Over Exploited, Critical, Semi critical, Safe based on Stage of Ground Water Development (Utilization) and the long term water level trend and available for the period 2009, 2011, 2013 and 2017.
  • Groundwater Prospects: Maps generated on 1:50000 scale, showing information regarding potential areas in terms of GW availability (both quantity and quality) is available
  • Litholog: The lithology data of 2740 bore locations with 26 parameters is available
  • Aquifer systems: Aquifer carries movable water and is the immediate sources of ground water. Information of country’s hydrogeological based classification into 14 Principal aquifers and 42 Major aquifers is available.
Thematic Layer

Thematic maps represents spatial variation of geographic distributions such as identifiable earth surface features it provides an informational description over a given area, rather than a data description. Thematic map layers available for visualization in the India-WRIS website maintaining by NWIC ( https://indiawris.gov.in/ ) are Land use/Land cover, Soil, Land Degradation, Wasteland and Wetlands

Hydro-meteorological data

The modules containing hydrological and meteorological data are:

  • Rainfall: Rainfall live time-series data is available from varied sources in a common dashboard since 1901.
  • Evapo-transpiration: The live daily data on Evapo-transpiration is available on a grid basis till district level for a given time period. The data is an output of grid-wise, water balance components using VIC hydrological model by NRSC.
  • Soil Moisture: The live daily data on Soil moisture (volumetric Soil Moisture content %) is available on a grid basis till district level for a given time period. The data is an output of grid-wise, water balance components using VIC hydrological model by NRSC.
  • Agro-Climatic/ecological zones: Major climatic zones (Planning commission) and agro-ecological zones (ICAR,2001) is available with specific attributes for each zone.
Land Resources

Land resources available in the form of thematic layers provides a theme-wise information over a given area and the modules containing land resources information are:

  • Land use/Land cover: The spatial layer shows the areas under 24 sub-classes of LULC. Data is available for 2005-06, 2011-12 & 2017-18 for pan India.
  • Soil: Spatial variation of soil resources in terms of texture, depth, slope, erosion and productivity is available in the form of raster layer.
  • Land Degradation: The data is satellite derived layers of degraded lands in the country for 8 states. It represents areas under various forms of land degradation processes, its type and severity level.
  • Waterlogging/Soil Salinity: It contains the statistical area of waterlogging and soil salinity under major and medium commands in different State’s India along with chart view. It provides results of project named ‘Assessment of Waterlogging and Salt and/or Alkaline affected Soils in the Commands of all Major and Medium Irrigation Projects in the Country using Satellite Remote Sensing (LISS-III data).
  • Wasteland: Spatial maps of distribution of wasteland for the entire country under 36 sub-classes is available for the period of 2005-06.
Allied Themes

The modules containing information on allied themes are:

  • Inter-basin Transfer Link: Provides the detailed information and maps of the various components of the Inter Basin Transfer Links. The published maps of NWDA in .pdf format are available for Himalayan component.
  • Inland Navigation Waterways: Provides a brief summary of all inland waterways along with the maps as well as all relevant information. It is available for 5 navigation waterways namely, (a)the Ganga (NW-1), (b)the Brahmaputra (NW-2), (c)the West Coast Canal (NW-3), (d)Kakinada-Puducherry Canals system along with Godavari and Krishna rivers (NW-4) and (e)East Coast Canal with Brahman River and Mahanadi delta (NW-5). The sixth proposed navigation waterway (The Barak – NW-6) has also now been recommended by the Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI).
  • Coastal Information System: Information related to oceanographic and meteorological data for the entire coast of India is available. The oceanographic and meteorological variables considered includes Strom surge, Cyclone, Wave and Sea-Level Rise. For all these variables, data is generated for three scenarios - baseline (present) and 2040 and 2080 (climate change scenarios).
  • Socio-economic: Information on the hierarchy of Administrative boundaries along with settlement information for urban and rural sets is available which provides details regarding cities and towns of the country with additional administrative classification.
  • Flood Inundation & Drought events: It contains flood inundated area maps which is a satellite derived product for three years viz., 2008, 2009 and 2010 generated under Disaster Management Programme. Drought sub module provides the information of reported drought affected areas for the whole country under two main themes: Areas under Drought Prone Development and Desertification Development and Tribal Sub-Plan Areas.
  • Reported Extreme Temperature, rainfall and earthquake events: Provides information of all destructing events caused due to water in its various forms and seismic activity. The major categories of extreme events data which display in this module are Flood, Drought, Earthquake, Extreme rainfall and Extreme temperature.
  • Water Tourism: It aims to provide the basic details of water tourism sites regarding its spatial location (latitude/longitude), name of the site, name of the water body (if available), state & district to which it belongs and a brief description of the place. The country level database contains description of 1138 tourist locations which 1036 are mainly classified as water tourism sites and few other major tourist spots and the database also contains a 292 Wild Life Sanctuaries and National Parks which mainly contains information regarding mammals, reptiles, and birds available, established year, nearest city.
Projects

The modules containing water resources projects information are:

  
  

  • Water Resources Project: It provides information on irrigation, hydro-power and multi-purpose projects in India. It is a spatial inventory of the connected water resources structures, mapping the location of dams, barrages, weirs, anicuts, reservoirs, canals, lifts, command areas, hydropower plants, structure line etc.
  • Minor Irrigation: It comprises Fourth MI (2006-07) and Fifth MI (2013-14) census to depict an overall view throughout the country which contains six layers of information at district level namely, absolute number of minor irrigation schemes, ground water and surface water schemes, number of five types of schemes, potential created, potential utilized and ultimate irrigation potential. The schemes have been categorized broadly into six major types: (1)Dug well (2)Shallow Tube well (3)Medium Tube well (4)Deep Tube well (5)Surface Flow Schemes and (6)Surface Lift Schemes.
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